பர்த்தலேமேயு சீகன்பால்க்

gHj;jNyNkA rPfd;ghy;f;

ziegenbalk

gHj;jNyNkA rPfd;ghy;f; 1683k; Mz;L [{d; khjk; 23k; Njjp n[Hkdp ehl;by; XgHnysrpl;]; vd;w khtl;lj;jpy; Gy;];dp];l; vd;w fpuhkj;jpy; gpwe;jhH. je;ijapd; ngauhd gHj;jNyNkA rPfd;ghy;f; vd;w ngaNu ,tUf;Fr; R+l;lg;gl;lJ. Mdhy; ,tH rpd;d rPfd;ghy;f; vd;wiof;fg;gl;lhH.

,tUf;F %d;W %j;j rNfhjupfs; cz;L. ,tH ngw;NwhUf;F xNu igadhdjhy; nry;ykhf tsHf;fg;gl;lhH. jha; nja;tgf;jp kpFe;j khJ. ngaH fhjiud;. jhAk; je;ijAk; Neha;nfhz;l clYilatHfshapUe;jjhy; ,UtUk; ruPu ngytPdKilatuhapUe;jhHfs;.

jhapd; Neha; mjpfupj;jjhy; gLf;ifapyhdhH. jhapd; kuz Neuk; neUq;fpf;nfhz;bUe;jJ. gps;isfSk; fztUk; fhjiudpd; fl;biyr; Rw;wp epd;W fz;zPH tpl;Lf;nfhz;bUe;jdH. mg;NghJ fhjiud; mk;ikahH fl;biyr; Rw;wp epd;w gps;isfisg; ghHj;J> vd; gps;isfNs> ePq;fs; moNtz;lhk;. ehd; cq;fSf;Fg; ngupa jputpak; xd;W itj;jpUf;fpNwd;. mjid vdJ Ntjg;Gj;jfj;jpy; NjLq;fs;> fhz;gPHfs;. vd; NtjGj;jfj;jpd; xt;nthU gf;fj;ijAk; gbj;J fz;zPNuhL Njtdplk; nfQ;rpapUf;fpNwd; vd;W $wp ,t;Tyf Xl;lj;ij Kbj;jhH. ,f;fhl;rpapidAk; md;idapd; nrhw;fisAk; gps;isfs; xUNghJk; kwf;fNtapy;iy.

fhjiudpd; kuzj;jpw;Fr; rpy ehl;fSf;Fg; gpd; je;ij rPfd;ghy;f; fLk; Nehahy; ghjpf;fg;gl;L gLf;ifapyhdhH. rPf;fpuk; kuzk; rk;gtpf;Fk; vd;W mtH mwpe;jpUe;jjhYk;> gps;isfs; rpWtHfshapUe;jikahYk;> kuzj;jpw;Fg; gpd; rtg;ngl;b thq;f my;yYWtH vd vz;zp> xUtuJ cjtpahy; rtg;ngl;b xd;wpid thq;fp tPl;by; itj;jhH. Jd;gk; njhlHe;JtUk; vd;gjw;fpzq;f ,e;epiyapy; xUehs; mtuJ tPL jPg;gpbj;Jf;nfhz;lJ. jPia mizf;f mf;fk;gf;fj;jhH XNlhb te;jdH. gLf;ifapypUe;j je;ij rPfd;ghy;f;if tpiutpy; ntspNa vLj;Jr; nry;y Kaw;rpj;jdH. gLf;ifNahL NrHj;Jr; Rke;J nry;tJ fbdkhapUe;jikahy; NtNwjhtJ fpilf;Fkhntd;W NjbdH. xU rtg;ngl;b mtHfs; fz;fspy; njd;gl;lJ. mjDs;Ns mtiu itj;J NtfNtfkhf ntspNa nfhz;Lte;jdH. ,t;tpjkha; je;ij rPfd;ghy;f; jPapdpd;W jg;Gtpf;fg;gl;lhH. mtiuf; fhg;ghw;wpatHfs; kfpo;r;rpNahL rtg;ngl;bia cw;W Nehf;fpdH. me;Njh! gupjhgk;! mjpy; gHj;jNyhNkAtpd; rlyk; kl;LNkapUe;jJ. capH ,y;iy.

FLk;gj;jpy; Vw;gl;l ,t;tpjkhd JHg;ghf;fpa rk;gtq;fs; rpd;d gHj;NyhNkAtpd; cs;sj;jpy; Mokha;g; gjpe;Jtpl;ld. vdNt mth nja;tj;ijad;wp Ntnwe;j JiziaAk; rhjfkhdjpy;iy vd;gjid ed;FzHe;jtuha; NjtidNa rhHe;J thoyhdhH.

Kjypy; rPfd;ghy;f; nrhe;j Cupy; tptrhapaha; ,Ue;jhh. rpyehl;fs; Mrpupauha;g; gzp Gupe;jhH. gpd;dH 1703k; Mz;L fy;Nyapy; ,iwapy; fw;whH. ,iwapay; fw;wgpd; gy ,lq;fSf;Fr; nrd;W gpurq;fk; nra;jhH. Njtidg;gw;wp mjpfkha; rpe;jpg;gjpYk; Njt CopaHfsNshL mjpfkha;j; njhlHG nfhs;StjpYk; <Lgl;lhH. ,jdhy; mjpf cw;rhfKk; Gj;JzHr;rpAKilatuhdhH.

fy;Nyapy; gbf;Fk;NghJ xUehs; Mgl; gpiua;j;njhg;l; vd;gtupd; gpurq;fk; ,tiu ntFtha; mirj;jJ. INuhg;ghtpy; E}W Mj;Jkhf;fisf; fpwp];Jtz;il topelj;Jtijtpl gpd;jq;fpa ehl;by; XH Mj;Jkhitf; fpwp];Jtz;il topelj;JtNj kpfr; rpwg;ghdjhFk; vd;w Mgl;gpiua;j; njsg;bd; thHj;ijfs; rPfd;ghy;f;fpd; cs;sj;jpy; gjpe;J fpupia nra;a Muk;gpj;jd. rPfd;ghy;f;fpd; kp\dwp thQ;ir tsHe;jJ. ,tuJ ez;gH GSr;NrhTk; ,tiug; Nghd;W Copa thQ;irAs;stuhapUe;jhH.

,r; rkaj;jpy;jhd; nld;khHf; kd;dH gpunlupf; jdJ muritg; NghjfH lhf;lH yl;f;fd;rplk; rpy CopaHfis mDg;gpj;jUkhW Nfl;bUe;jhH. nld;khHf;fpy; CopaH gQ;rk; epytpjhy; mtH nIHkdp ehl;L rPfd; ghy;f;fplKk; GSr;NrhtplKk; vOjpf; Nfl;lhH. mtHfs; ,UtUk; rk;kjk; njuptpj;J vOjpdH.

vdNt ,tHfsJ rk;kjk; mq;fPfupf;fg;gl;lJ. vdpDk; may;ehl;L kp\dwpfsha;r; nry;YNthH rpy guPl;irfspy; NjwplNtz;bapUe;jJ. ,jw;fpzq;f ,UtUk; tutiof;fg;gl;L guPl;rpf;fg;gl;ldH. ,tHfisg; guPl;rpj;jtH GdpjH ,af;fj;ij ntWg;gtH. rPfd;ghy;f;Fk; GSr;NrhTk; GdpjH ,af;fj;jpy; mjpf ehl;lKilatH. Mifahy; Kjy; guPl;irapy; ,tHfs; ,e;jpahtpw;Fr; nry;yj; jFjpaw;wtHfs; vd;W jPHg;gspf;fg;gl;ldH. jiyikaplj;J cj;juTg;gb kPz;Lk; xU guPl;ir elj;jg;gl;lJ. jiyikaplk; ,tHfSf;Fr; rhjfkhapUg;gijawpe;j guPl;ir Nkw;ghHitahsH ,tHfs; jFjpAs;stHfs;jhd; vd;W jPHg;gspj;jhH.

rPfd;ghy;f;Fk; GSr;NrhTk; ,e;jpahtpw;F tutpUg;gij mwpe;j Nldp\; fk;ngdpahH jq;fsJ Rje;jpuk; (kdk;Nghy; elj;jy;) ghjpf;fg;gLk; vd;nwz;zp mtHfsJ tutpw;F Kl;Lf;fl;ilapl Kaw;rpj;jdH.

rPfd;ghy;f; ,e;jpahtpw;F tUjYk; gzpapd; Muk;gKk;

rPfd;ghy;f;iftpl GSr;Nr MWtajpw;F %j;jtH. ,Ug;gpDk; ,UtUk; xUkpj;j fUj;JilatHfs;> cw;w ez;gHfs;. ,UtUk; 1706k; Mz;L [{iy khjk; 9k; Njjp Nrhgp nfl;tpf; vd;Dk; fg;gypy; juq;fk; ghbf;F te;jdH.

juq;fk;ghbaUfpy; epWj;jg;gl;bUe;j fg;gypypUe;J midtUk; fiuf;Fk; nry;y mDkjpf;fg;gl;ldH. Mdhy; ,t;tpUtUf;Fk; mDkjp toq;fg;gltpy;iy. ,tHfis Vw;Wf;nfhs;sNth cgrupf;fNth xUtUkpy;iy. ,tHfisf; fiuf;Ff; nfhz;L nry;y xUtUk; glF mDg;gTkpy;iy. rpy ehl;fSf;Fg; gpd;dH xUtH mtHfSf;F cjtpl Kd;te;jhH. mtH mt;tpUtiuAk; ,d;ndhU fg;gYf;F khw;wpdhH. mjpypUe;J jq;ff;Fzk; gilj;j jkpoHfspd; cjtpahy; glfpNywp fiuNrHe;jdH. fiuNrHe;jNghJ murhq;f mYtyH xUtH jd; ifapy; gpbj;jpUe;j fk;gpapdhy; mbj;J tpLNtd; vd;W $wpg; gaKWj;jpdhH. MfNt mtHfs; mq;Nf epw;fNtz;bajhapw;W. mg;NghJ Neuk; fhiy gj;J kzp. md;W khiy ehd;F kzp tiuapYk; mtHfs; juq;fk;ghb efUf;Fs; nrd;wpl mDkjpf;fg;gltpy;iy. Mk;! mUe;jplj; jz;zPH$lf; nfhLf;fg;glhj epiyapy; mq;NfNa epd;wdH.

vt;tsT rpwg;ghd tuNtw;G! fpwp];Jitg;gw;wp RtpNr\k; $wte;j kp\dwpfis INuhg;gpaH tuNtw;w tpjk; ,Jjhd;.

,Us; R+Ok; Neuj;jpy; Nldp\; jsgjp N[.rp. Nfrpa]; rPfd;ghy;f;ifr; re;jpf;f te;jjH. mjl;Lk; Njhuizapy; cq;fis ,q;F tur;nrhd;dJ ahH? vd;W Nfl;lhH. rPfd;ghy;f;Fk; GSr;NrhTk; jhq;fs; Nldp\; murupd; fl;lisg;gb te;jjhff; $wp> mjw;fhd mj;jhl;rpg; gj;jpuj;ijAk; fhl;bdH. vdNt Nfrpa]; mikjpg;gl;Lj; jpUk;gpdhH. mtH gpd;dhy; ,t;tpU CopaHfSk; nrd;wdH. re;ijj;jply; tiu gpd;dhy; nrd;wdH. gpd;dH Ntfkhf Nfrpa]; nrd;Wtpl;likahy; ,UtUk; nra;tjwpahJ jpifj;J epw;fyhapdH.

Njtd; jk;ik ek;GfpwtHfisf; iftpLfpwjpy;iy vd;gJ vd;WNk ngha;j;jjpy;iy.

Mk;> mq;F xU n[HkhdpaH te;jhH. jpifj;J epd;w ,tHfisj; jd;DlNd mioj;Jr; nrd;whH. jdJ khkhtpd; tPl;by; nfhz;L NrHj;jhH. gpd;dH ,tHfs; thliff;F tPL mkHj;jp mq;F thoyhapdH.

Nfrpa];> jpl;lk; gy jPl;bdhH. ,k;kp\dwpfshy; jd; cUl;Lk; Gul;Lk; ,opr;nray;fSk; re;ijf;F te;JtpLk; vd;W gae;jtuha; ,tHfSf;Fj; njhy;iy nfhLj;jpl> JaH ngUf;fpl KO%r;Rld; nray;g;glyhdhH. Nldp\; fk;gdpahUk; Nfrparpd; jpl;lq;fSf;nfy;yhk; MjuT nfhLj;jdH.

1707k; mz;L tUlg;gpwg;G jpdj;jpy; GSr;Nrh fpwp];jtHfspd; ghtq;fisf; Fwpj;Jk; fk;gdpahupd; mtkhdr; nray;fisf; Fwpj;Jk; fz;bj;Jg; Ngrp mtHfs; kde;jpUk;gp ,NaR fhl;ba topapy; elf;f Ntz;Lnkd;W Nghjpj;jhH. vdNt md;W khiyapy;jhNd rPfd;ghy;f;Fk; GSr;NrhTk; Fw;wk; rhl;lg;gl;L ftHdH Kd;dpiyapy; epWj;jg;gl;ldH.

rPfd;ghy;f;ifAk; GSr;NrhitAk; Nfrpa]; mbj;J nehWf;fp tpLgtHNghy; Nfhgk; nfhz;lhH. ,e;j eha;fSf;F ek;ikg; gw;wp Vd; ,e;j mf;fiw vd;W $wpathNw ifia klf;fp rPfd;ghy;f;fpd; neQ;rpNy Fj;jpdhH. ,ijf;fz;l jkpo;j;jhapd; Gjy;tHfs; Nfrpa];jhd; eha; vd;W cs;sj;jpy; vz;zpdH. fpwp];Jitg; gpurq;fpg;NghH cz;ikapNyNa tPuHfs;jhd;. ,tHfSf;Nf ,j;jif tPuk; ,Uf;Fk;NghJ fpwp];JtpYk; vj;jidahapUe;jpUf;Fk; vd;W epidj;jdH> ngU%r;R tpl;ldH.

rPfd;ghy;f; kde;jsuhJ nra;aNtz;batw;iwr; nra;J nfhz;NlapUe;jjhH. mepahak; nra;ag;gl;lNghnjy;yhk; ,ad;wsT Njt xj;jhirAld; vjpHj;jhH.

xUrkak; xU tpjit Nfrparplk; epahaj;jpw;fhf Kiwapl;lhs;. Nfrpa]; mjw;Fr; nrtprha;f;ftpy;iy. mtSila fztH uhag;gd; jiyKb rpq;fhupf;Fk; njhopy; Gupe;jtH. ,tH Qhd];ehdk; ngw;W ey;ynjhU fpwp];jtuha; tho;e;jhH. jPbnud mtH kupj;Jg; NghdhH. mtuJ nrhj;J rk;ge;jkhf tpjitf;Fk; FLk;gj;jpdH rpyUf;Fk; jfuhW Vw;gl;lJ. ,ij tprhupj;J epahak; toq;FkhWjhd; mts; Nfrparplk; Nfl;lJ. mtH ,jid mrl;il nra;jjhy; mts; mq;fyha;j;jhs;. ,jid mwpe;j rPfd;ghy;f;> jhd; mwpe;j cz;ikfis vLj;Jf;$wp me;j Viof; fpwp];jtSf;F epahak; toq;FkhW xU fbjk; vOjpdhH. ,jdhy; Nfrpa]; fLq;Nfhgkile;jhH. murpaypy; jiyapLfpwhH rPfd;ghy;f; vd;W Fw;wk; rhl;bdhH. rPfd;ghy;;if mioj;J tUkhW XH mbikia mDg;gpdhH. gpd;dH rPfd;ghy;f; ,jdpkpj;jk; rpiwapyilf;fg;gl;lhH.

rPfd;ghy;f; ehd;F khjq;fs; rpiwapy; mtjpAw;whH. rpwpanjhU miwapy; rpiw tho;f;if elj;jpa rPfd;ghy;f;if ahUk; ghHj;jpl mDkjpf;fg;gltpy;iy. vOJtjw;F fhfpjk;> Ngdh MfpadTk; nfhLf;fg;gltpy;iy. mdhy; fHj;jH mtiu vt;tpjf; FiwTkpd;wp Ngh\pj;jhH. md;dhUf;Fj; Jd;gkspj;J te;j Nfrpa]; jd; Kaw;rpfsidj;Jk; tPzhtijf; fz;L> mtiu tpLiy nra;Jtpl vz;zpdhH. Mdhy; mjw;F Kd; kd;dpg;Gf; fbjk; vOJtjhdhy; cldbahf tpLjiy nra;ayhk; vd;W GSr;Nrhtplk; Nfrpa]; nrhy;yp mDg;gpdhH. rPfd;ghy;f; mjw;F ,zq;ftpy;iy. Nfrpa]; jtWfis czuyhdhH. NfrpaRf;F rPfd;ghy;f;if tpLjiy nra;ahky; epk;kjp ,y;iy vd;w epiy Vw;gl;lJ. Mifahy; jd; kidtpAld; xUehs; rPfd;ghy;f;iff; fhzr;nrd;whH. rPfd;ghy;f; Nfrpairj; jd; neUq;fpd ez;gidg;Nghy; tuNtw;W md;Gld; NgrpdhH. rPfd;ghy;f; 1709k; Mz;L khHr; khjk; 26k; Njjp tpLjiyahdhH.

rPfd;ghy;f;Fk; GSr;NrhTk; fpwp];J ehk kfpikf;fhf mile;j Ntjidfis tptupg;gpd; ek; fz;fspy; fz;zPH ngUFk;> cs;sj;jpd; Ntjid ngU%r;rha; ntsptUk;.

,t;tpU kp\dwpfSk; rpy fhyk; nrhe;j ehL nrd;W jpUk;gpdhy; ey;yJ vd vz;zpdH. Mdhy; mtHfs; jq;fs; jha;ehl;bw;Fr; nry;yhjpUf;f vd;ndd;d ,ila+W nra;a KbANkh mj;jidiaAk; fk;gdpahH nra;jdH.

jkpOf;Fj; njhz;lhw;Wjy;

rPfd;ghy;f; jkpo; fw;wy;

rPfd;ghy;f; Iaiu jkpoHfs; ed;F Nerpj;jdH. jkpoHfs; ghuhl;ba md;G mtuJ ruPu ngytPdj;jpy; GJj; njk;ig mspj;jJ.

GSr;NrhTk; rPfd;ghy;Fk; juq;fk;ghbapy; xU rpW gs;spf;$lk; Muk;gpj;jdH. ,UtUk; jhq;fs; Muk;gpj;j gps;spapNy rpW gps;isfNshL jiuapy; cl;fhHe;J jkpo; vOj;Jf;fis tpuypdhy; kzypd; jiuapy; vOjp jkpo; fw;wdH. mtHfSf;F Kjypag;gd; vd;w tNahjpgH fw;Wf;nfhLj;jhH.

rPfd;ghy;f; ,uz;L tUlq;fshf N[Hkd; Gj;jfNkh yj;jPd; Gj;jfNkh gbf;fhky; jkpioNa fw;whH. jpdKk; fhiy VO kzp Kjy; vl;L kzp tiu fle;j ehspy; fw;w jkpo;r; nrhw;fis kdg;ghlkha;r; nrhy;YthH. gpd;dH vl;Lkzp Kjy; xU kzp tiu jkpo;r; Rtbfs; gbg;ghH. khiyapy; %d;W kzp Kjy; Ie;J kzp tiu kPz;Lk; jkpo;r; Rtbfs; gbg;ghH. ,uT VO kzp Kjy; vl;Lkzp tiu ahiuahtJ xUtiu jkpo;g;Gj;jfq;fis thrpf;fr; nra;J ftdpj;Jf;nfhz;L ,Ug;ghH.

,t;tpjkha; ,tH jkpiog; gbj;jikahy; vl;L khjq;fspy; jkpopy; NgrTk; vOjTk; fw;Wf;nfhz;lhH. ,jdhy; jkpOf;F kWkyHr;rpf;fhyk; Muk;gpf;fyhapw;W vdyhk;. ,f;$w;W rupjhNdhntd Nfs;tp vOg;gyhk;.

fk;gdp tHj;jfHfs; kj;jpapYk;> fk;gdp gl;lhsj;jpdH kj;jpapYk; CopaHfs; mf;fhyj;jpy; ,Ue;jNghjpYk; mtHfsplk; fpwp];jtj; njhz;lhw;Wk; thQ;ir ,y;iy. vdNt ,e;epiyapy; gupRj;j NtjGj;jfj;ijj; jkpopy; nkhopngaHj;jy; ,yFthd fhupaky;y. fpwp];jt CopaH xUtUila cjtpAkpd;wp jdpj;Nj mtH ,g;gzpapy; <LglyhdhH. ,g;gzpapid mtH Muk;gpg;gjw;FKd; mtH gy ehl;fsha; Cf;fkha; n[gpj;jhH. GJ cw;rhfKk; nja;t top elj;JjYk; ngw;whH. vdNt 1708k; Mz;L mf;NlhgH khjk; 17k; Njjp Gjpa Vw;ghl;il nkhopngaHf;f Muk;gpj;jhH.

1707k; Mz;L khHr; khjj;jpypUe;J gy ghl;Lf;fis nkhopngaHj;jhH. jkpo; ,uhfq;fSf;Nfw;w fPHj;jidfis ,aw;wpdhH. ,tH ,aw;wpa 48 ghly;fs; vl;L Mz;LfSf;Fg; gpd;dH mr;rplg;gl;ld.

jkpo; Gjpa Vw;ghL nkhopngaHg;G mr;rplg;gLKd; 1713k; Mz;by; jkpo;ehl;l nja;tq;fspd; guk;giu vd;w E}iy vOjpdhH. ePq;fs; ,g; Gj;jfj;jpidg; gbj;jgpd; cz;ikia mwpe;Jnfhs;tPHfs;.

rPfd;ghy;f; Kjypy; jkpopy; xw;iwj;jhs; gpujpfSk; gpd;dH gpurq;fq;fSk; vOjpdhH. mjd;gpd; Gj;jfq;fs; vOjpdhH. ,it ahTk; ifg;gpujpfshapUe;jd.

nkhopngaHf;Fk; gzpapy; <LgLjy;

gupRj;j NtjGj;jfj;ijj; jkpopy; nkhopngaHj;J jkpoHfs; Ntjj;ijg; gbj;J jhq;fshfNt mwpe;Jnfhs;Sk; toptifjid ,Jtiu ahUk; nra;atpy;iy. Gul;l];lhd;l; kp\d; gpuptpdH ek; ehl;by; Copak; nra;a Muk;gpg;gjw;F Kd;djhfNt fj;Njhypf;fg; gpuptpdH ,e;jpahtpy; epiynfhz;bUe;jNghjpYk; Ntjg;Gj;jfj;ijj; jkpopy; jpUj;jp midtUk; gbj;jpLk; tifapy; ahUk; fUj;Jr; nrYj;jpajpy;iy vdyhk;.

,g;Gj;jfk; 219 gf;fq;fisf; nfhz;lJ. ePjpntz;gh> nfhd;iwNte;jd;> cyfePjp vd;Dk; jkpo; E}y;fis xd;W NrHj;J ehdhtpj E}y;fs; vd;w ngaUld; Mf;fpitj;jhH. ,jw;Fs; mtH xU Kd;DiuiaAk; NrHj;jhH. yj;jPd; nkhopapy; xU jkpo; ,yf;fz E}y; ,aw;wpdhH. n[Hkd; nkhopapy; kyghH ehl;L khHf;fj;ijg;gw;wpa KOtpguKk; vd;w 322 gf;fq;fs; nfhz;lnjhU E}iyAk; vOjpdhH (kyghH vd;Dk; thHj;ij jkpo; ehl;ilf; Fwpg;gpLfpwJ)

jpU rPfd;ghy;f; gid Xiyapy; vOJtjpy; NjHr;rp ngw;whH. gidXiyr; Rtbapy; vOjpatw;iw n[Hkdpapy; jdpj;jdpj; jkpo; vOj;Jf;fshf thHj;njLf;f xOq;F nra;jhH.

,e;jpahtpw;Fj; nra;j njhz;L

Kjy; fhfpjj; njhopw;rhiy

n[Hkdpapy; thHg;gpf;fg;gl;l vOj;Jf;fs; ,e;jpahtpw;F te;jgpd; mtw;iw mr;rpLtjw;fhd fhfpjKk; mr;rfKk; ,e;jpahtpy; ,y;yhikahy; Nkw;nfhz;L vd;dnra;tnjd;W vz;zplyhdhH. ,tH vOjp itj;jpUe;j gidXiyr; Rtb tbtpyhd E}w;fisg; gyUk; mwpa mr;rpl;Lg; gug;g KbahjpUe;j epiyikapid ed;W czHe;jpUe;j ml;NyhH Jiu vd;gtH ,e;jpahtpNyNa fhfpjk; nra;Ak; Kaw;rpapyPLgl;lhH. mtH juq;fk;ghbf;F mUfpYs;s nghwhahH vd;Dk; ,lj;jpy; fhfpjk; nra;tjw;fhd Miyia vw;gLj;jpdhH. rPfd;ghy;f;fpd; J}z;LjYk; Cf;f%l;LjYk; ,jw;Ff; fhuzkhapUe;jJ. ,Jjhd; ,e;jpahtpd; Kjy; fhfpjj; njhopw;rhiy.

kp\dwpfs; ,e;jpah GJikngw vt;tstha; cioj;jpUf;fpwhHfs; vd;gij ,r;nray; njs;sj; njspa vLj;Jiuf;fpd;wjy;yth?

Copaj;jpw;Fj; Njitahd fhfpjk; jd; njhopw;rhiapy; nra;JnfhLj;J cjtpdhH ml;NyhH.

,e;jpahtpd; Kjy; mr;rk;

rPfd;ghy;f;fpd; ey; Copaj;ij mwpe;j ,q;fpyhe;J ehl;L fpwp];J khHf;f mgptpUj;jpr; rq;fj;jhH XH mr;R ,ae;jpuj;ij mtUf;F mDg;gp tij;jdH. mt;tr;R ,ae;jpuj;ij Rke;Jte;j fg;gy;> n[Hkdpa ez;gHfs; nfhLj;j mr;R vOj;Jf;fisAk; Rke;Jte;jJ.

mr;R ,ae;jpuj;ijf; nfhz;Lte;j fg;giy topapy; gpuQ;Rf;fhuhHfs; gpbj;Jf;nfhz;ldH. rpy ehl;fSf;Fg; gpd; nrd;id ftHdH gzk; nrYj;jp mf;fg;giy kPl;lhH. vdNt kPz;Lk; fg;gy; ,e;jpah Nehf;fpg; gpuahzk; Muk;gpj;jJ. Mg;gpupf;fhtpd; njd;Nfhbapy; ed;dk;gpf;if Kid mUNf fg;gy; tUk;NghJ mr;R ,ae;jpuj;ij ,af;fj; njupe;jpUe;j epGzH kupj;Jg;NghdhH. mr;R ,ae;jpuk; juq;fk;ghbf;F te;jJ. Mdhy; mjid ,af;fj; njupe;j xUtUk; ,y;yhjjhy; ,ae;jpuk; cgNahfpf;f Kbahj epiyapy; itf;fg;gl;lJ.

vdpDk; rPfd;ghy;f; cw;rhfk; Fd;wtpy;iy. ek;gpf;ifapy; jsHr;rpailatpy;iy. ,k;kl;Lk; elj;jpd Njtd; ,d;dKk; elj;JthH vd;w ek;gpf;ifAld; nrayhw;wpdhH. rpy ehl;fspy; Nldp\; NridapypUe;j NghHtPuH xUtUf;F mr;R ,aj;jpuj;ij ,af;fj; njupAk; vd;gijf; Nfs;tpg;gl;lhH. jsgjpapd; mDkjp ngw;W mtiu mioj;J te;J Kjypy; rpy gpurq;fq;fisAk; gpd;dH tpdh tpil vd;w E}iyAk; mr;rpl;lhH. ,itjhd; ,e;jpahtpy; mr;rplg;gl;l Kjy; E}y;fs; (1713). 1713k; Mz;bd; ,Wjpg; ghfj;jpy; Gjpa Vw;ghl;bd; mr;Rg; gjpg;ig Muk;gpj;jhH.

,e;jpahtpy; mr;R vOj;Jf;fs; thHg;gpf;fg;gLjy;

n[HkdpapypUe;J nfhz;Ltug;gl;l mr;nrOj;Jf;fs; kpfg; gUkdhapUe;jgbahy; juq;fk;ghbapy; rpwpa mr;nrOj;Jf;fs; thHf;fg;gLtjw;fhd xOq;Ffis ,tH nra;jhH. mr;nrOj;Jf;fs; ,e;jpahtpNyNa nra;ag;gl;ld.

Mk;! ,e;jpahtpy; (jkpo;ehl;by;) fpwp];jt Copak; nra;Jte;j rPfd;ghy;f; mr;rfk; Vw;gLj;jpaJ> mr;nrOj;Jf;fs; thHg;gpj;jJ Mfpad ,e;jpahtpd; Kd;Ndw;wj;jpd; Kjy; fl;lk; vd;gij ahH kWj;jplf; $Lk;> kiwj;jpl ,aYk;.

,e;jpahtpd; mwpTf;fz;izj; jpwf;ff; fhuzkhapUe;NjhH fpwp];jtHfs;jhd; vd;gJ cs;sq;if ney;ypf;fdpiag;Nghy; Gyg;gLfpwjd;Nwh? fpwp];jtHfis ek; NjrKd;Ndw;wj;jpw;F Kd; Fwpj;jpUe;jtH ,NaR fpwp];Jtd;Nwh! ,jid ,e;jpaH midtUk; czHe;J ,NaRit jq;fs; nrhe;j ,ul;rfuhf Vw;Wf;nfhz;lhy; tskha; MrPHthjk; ek; ehl;by; jq;Fkd;Nwh!

juq;fk;ghbapy; mr;rfj;jpy; ntspaplg;gl;l rPfd;ghy;f;Ftpd; E}w;fs; Y}j;jupd; QhNdhgNjrf; Fwpg;G> ,ul;rpg;gpd; xOq;F> Nrho kz;lyjh;jhUf;F xU epUgk;> Qhdg;ghl;Lg; Gj;jfk;> n[gg; Gj;jfk; MfpadthFk;.

RtpNr\ Copak;

rPfd;ghy;f; nkhopngaHj;j jkpo; Gjpa Vw;ghL gbg;gjw;F vspaeilapy; mike;jpUe;jjhy; VuhskhNdhH tpUk;gpg; gbj;jdH. gyH mjidg; gbj;J kde;jpUk;gp fHj;juhfpa ,NaRNt nka;ahd nja;tk; vd;W mwpe;J mtiu Vw;Wf;nfhz;lhH.

Nuhkd; fj;Njhypf;f rigapduhapUe;j uh[ehaf;fd; vd;gtH rPfd;ghy;f; nkhopnaHj;j Gjpa Vw;ghl;ilg; gbj;jjhy; juq;fk;ghb Gul;l];ld;l; kp\dwpfNshL njhlHG nfhz;lhH. gpd;dH Gul;lh];ld;l; fpwp];jtuhdhH. ,utJ kdkhw;wk; tPukhKdptH vd;w ng];fpf;F fLQ; rpdKz;lhf;fpaJ. ng];fp rpwe;j mwpthsp. ngaH ngw;w jkpwpQH. vdpDk; ,tH uh[ehaf;fDf;F ,lH gy nra;a Kad;wplyhdhH.

uh[ehaf;fdpd; tPl;il mopj;jpl ng];fp Ml;fis mDg;gpdhH. CuhH mjidj; jLj;J epWj;jpdH. gpd;dH mtuJ J}z;Ljyhy; rpyH nrd;W uh[ehaf;fdpd; tPl;il jhf;fpdhH. uh[ehaf;fdpd; ,U rNfhjuHfs; fhakile;jdH. mtuJ je;ij nfhy;yg;gl;lhH. vdpDk; uh[ehaf;fd; jsuh tpRthrj;Jld; jd; Ntiyia tpl;Ltpl;L RtpNr\ CopauhdhH. mtH %yk; RtpNr\k; gy ,lq;fspYk; gutpaJ.

rPfd; ghy;f; Copak; nra;tjpy; Kd;zzpapy; epd;whH. gpw kjj;jtH kj;jpapy; ,iltplhJ Copak; nra;jhH. gpw kjj;jtH ,tiu ntWf;ftpy;iy. md;G ghuhl;bdH. ghrKld; elj;jpdH.

,tH juq;fk;ghbapy; jd; tPl;bw;F Kd;dhy; ngupanjhU ge;jy; mikj;jpUe;jhH. ,g;ge;jypy; thujw;jpw;F %d;W ehs; RNjrpfs; te;J $LtH. mtHfSf;F fpwp];Jitg;gw;wpf; $wp RtpNr\l gzpGupe;jhH. mtiuj; jdpahff; fz;L Ngr tpUk;GNthUf;nfd rkak; xJf;fp itj;jpUe;jhH. mt;Ntisapy; mq;F tUNthiu xt;nthUtuha; tprhupj;J mtHfSf;F Mj;kPf czizf; nfhLj;jNjhL ey; cgNjrq;fSk; $wp cjtp nra;jhH. vdNt mtiuf; fz;LNgrp fHj;jiug;gw;wp mwpe;J fspg;gila mNefH tUtJz;L.

,f;fhyj;Jg; NghjfHkhupy; ngUk;ghyhNdhH ,k;Kiwapidg; gpd;gw;whJ cs;sdH. rpy ehl;fs; njhlHgha; Myaj;jpw;F tuhjtHfs;> Gjpjhf Myaj;jpw;F tUNthH> fz;zPUk; > ftiyAkha; tUNthH> MfpNahiuj; jdpNa re;jpj;Jg;Ngrp> Mz;ltd; jpUthf;if mtHfSf;Ff; $wp> MWjyspg;gJ kpfTk; crpjkhdnjhU nrayhFk;.

juq;fk;ghbapy; ,tH jq;fplj; Jtf;fpa ,uz;lhk; Mz;by; Nghj;Jf;fPrpa rpWtHfSf;nfd xU gs;spf;$lk; Muk;gpj;jhH. mjpy; ek; jkpo; nry;yf; Foe;ijfs; gy te;J fw;wd. mtHfSf;F fpwp];jtf; fy;tp nfhLf;fg;gl;lJ. rpy ehl;fspy; mJ rpwpaNjhH rigahf khwpaJ. RNjrpfs; gyH jpUKOf;Fg; ngw;W rigapd; mq;fkhapdH. fj;Njhypf;fg; gpuptpypUe;Jk; gyH te;J ,r;rigapy; NrHe;Jnfhz;ldH. ,r;rigapy; 1707k; Mz;L 35 NgUk;> 1708k; Mz;L 101 NgUk; 1712k; mz;L 202 NgUk; mq;fk; tfpj;jdH. ,t;tpjkha; rig tsuyhapw;W.

rl;ilf;fhuUf;nfd;W (Anglo - Indian) NghHbq; ghlrhiy xd;W ];jhgpj;jhH. ,tH kupf;Fk;NghJ NghHbq; ghlrhiyapy; 280 Ngh gbj;Jf;nfhz;bUe;jdH.

ehl;by; epytpa [hjp tpj;jpahrk; rigapy; epytp tplhjgb rPfd;ghy;f; Kad;wNghjpYk; KbahJ Nghapw;W. rPfd;ghy;; Muk;gpj;j rigapy; NghHj;Jf;fPrpaH> INuhg;gpa cil mzpe;J ehfuPfkhaj; Njhw;wkspj;jdH. Mjp jpuhtpl ,dj;ijr; NrHj;j Gj;jpf; $HikAs;s rpWthfSf;Fk; INuhg;gpa Kiwapyhd Mil mzptpj;J rl;ilf;fhuNuhL rkj;Jtkha; elj;jg;gl;ldH. ,tHfs; R+j;jpur; rpWtHfistpl caHe;jtHfsha;f; fUj;jg;gl;ldH. fyg;Gj; jpUkzk; gy;NtW [hjpapdUf;Fs; eilngw;wJ. Mdhy; R+j;jpuHfSf;Fk; MjpjpuhtplHfSf;FkpilNa fyg;Gj; jpUkzk; eilngwtpy;iy.

gy [hjpapdH rigapy; ,Ue;jNghjpYk; rPfd;ghy;f; kpfj; jpwikahf midtiuAk; xw;WikAld; gupghypj;J te;jJ> mtH cyf ,ul;rfH fpwp];Jtplk; fw;w ghlNkad;wp Ntwy;y.

rPfd;ghy;f; fl;ba Kjy; Myak;

rPfd;ghy;f; ,e;jpahtpy; (juq;fk;ghb) Copak; nra;jjpd; gydha; rig Vw;gl;lnjd;W ghHj;Njhk;. mtH te;j gjpd;%d;W khjq;fspy; mofpa Myak; xd;wpidf; fl;bdhH. 1707k; Mz;L Mf];L khjk; 14k; Njjp mt;thyak; gpujp\;il nra;ag;gl;lJ. md;W mtH (rq;.122:6) vUrNykpd; rkhjhdj;Jf;fhf Ntz;bf;nfhs;Sq;fs;. cd;id Nerpf;fpwtHfs; Rfpj;jpUg;ghHfshf! vd;w trdj;jpd;Ngupy; jkpopy; mUSiu Mw;wpdhH.

 ,Jjhd; ,e;jpahtpy; ,e;jpaUf;fhff; fl;lg;gl;l Kjy; fpwp];jt Myak;. (1680k; Mz;by; nrd;idg; gl;lzj;jpy; ,e;jpahtpd; Kjy; Gul;l];lhd;l; Myak; fl;lg;gl;ljhf tuyhw;Wf; Fwpg;Gfs; cs;sd. mt;thyak; INuhg;gpaHfSf;fhff; fl;lg;gl;lJ)

rPfd;ghy;f; RkhH MWkhj fhyk; nrd;idg; gl;lzj;jpy; RtpNr\ Copak; Gupe;Js;shH. mg;NghJ mq;fpUe;j Gu];lhz;l; Myaj;jpy; mUSiu Mw;wpapUf;ff; $Lk;. mjd; gpd;dH cldbahf juq;fk;ghbapy; jkpoUf;fhf Myak; fl;lg;glNtz;ba Njitia czHe;J tpiutpy; Myaj;ijf; fl;bapUg;ghH vd;W ek;gplyhk;.

jha;ehL nrd;W tUjy;

nfhd;wpl te;jtHfs; ntl;fpj; jpUk;Gjy;

 1710 Mk; Mz;L nrd;id nrd;W ez;gHfisr; re;jpj;jNjhL ,e;Jf;fs; kj;jpapy; Copak; nra;jhH. 1711 Mk; Mz;bYk; nrd;idf;Fr; nrd;whH. ,uz;lhk; jlit nrd;idf;Fr; nrd;wNghJ Kd;dpYk; MHtkha; fpuhkq;fSf;Fr; nrd;W RtpNr\k; $wpdhH. njYq;F gpuhkzHfs; ,tiu mjpfkha; vjpHf;fyhapdH.

 xUehs; fpuhkq;fspy; RtpNr\k; $wptpl;L khiyapy; xU rj;jpuj;jpy; jq;fpdhH. rPfd;ghy;f;NfhL NtW jkpo; ez;gHfs; ,Ue;jdH. fisg;gpd; kpFjpahy; rPfd;ghy;f;Fk; ez;gHfSk; J}q;fptpl;ldH. es;sputpy; mq;F rpyuJ fhyb Xirahy; jhtPJ vd;gtH tpopj;Jf;nfhz;lhH. mtH topj;Jf;nfhz;lhnudpDk; vOk;gtpy;iy. fz;fis %bathNw gLj;jpUe;jhH. vdNt mq;F te;NjhH njYq;fpy; Ngrpf;nfhz;l thHj;ijfs; mtuJ fhJfspy; tpOq;fd. jhtPJ njYq;F nkhop mwpe;jtuhifahy; clNd vOk;gp> rPfd;ghy;f;ifAk; vOk;gpdhH. mtHfs; vOk;gp cl;fhHe;jhHfs;.

 Mk;! mq;F te;jtHfs; NtW ahUky;y> rpy njYq;F gpuhkzHfs;jhd;. mtHfs; mtiuf; nfhd;wplf; fq;fzk; fl;b te;jpUe;jdH. rPfd;ghy;f; mtHfsplk; ciuahbdhH> vupr;rYldy;y> md;Gld;. mtHfs; ntl;fpj; jpUk;gp tpiue;jdH. Njtd; mjprakha; rPfd;ghy;f;iff; fhg;ghw;wpdhH.

jha;ehL nry;Yjy;

rPfd;ghy;f; ePz;l ehl;fsha; tpUk;gpathW 1714k; Mz;L jha;ehL nry;Yk; tha;g;gpidg; ngw;whH. INuhg;ghtpw;Fr; nry;Yk; gpuahzj;jpd;NghJk; mtH Xa;ntLf;ftpy;iy. INuhg;ghtpw;Fr; nrd;w gpd;dUk; Xa;ntLf;ftpy;iy. gzpapy; <Lgl;Lf;nfhz;NlapUe;jhH.

INuhg;ghtpw;Fr; nry;Yk;NghJ kiyag;gd; vd;w xU thypggid mioj;Jr; nrd;wpUe;jhH. mt;thypgdpd; JizAld; fg;gy; gpuahzj;jpd;NghJ gioa Vw;ghl;bd; NahRthtpd; Gj;jfk; tiuapYk; jkpohf;fk; nra;jhH.

 INuhg;ghtpw;Fr; nrd;wJk; mq;F gy ,lq;fSf;Fk; nrd;W ,e;jpahtpy; eilngWk; RtpNr\ Copaj;ijg;gw;wp vLj;Jiuj;jhH. ,jdhy; mq;Fs;NshH ,e;jpahtpy; eilngWk; RtpNr\ Copak; gw;wp mjpf fuprid nfhz;L NguhjuT Gupe;jdH.

 ,q;fpyhe;J nrd;W Kjyhk; IhH[; kd;diuAk; FLk;gj;ijAk; re;jpj;Jg; NgrpdhH. ,e;jpahtpw;F RtpNr\ Copak; kpfkpfj; NjitahdJ vd;gij mtHfSf;F tptupj;Jiuj;jhH.

 fpwp];J khHf;f fy;tp mgptpUj;jpr;rq;fj;jhiuAk; fz;L NgrpdhH. kw;Wk; gy jdte;jHfisAk; Copaj;ijj; jhq;Fk; kdg;gf;FtKila NjtjhrHfisAk; re;jpj;Jg; NgrpdhH.

nld;khHf; muriuf; fz;L Ngrp Fiw eptpHj;jpf;f Ntz;bdhH. vdNt kd;dH> Kd;dH Copaj;jpw;Ff; nfhLj;j nghUSjtpiatpl $Ljy; xU klq;F (4000 lhyH) epjp cjtpaspj;jhH.

,e;jpahtpy; Nfrpa]; rPfd;ghy;f;fpw;F ,iof;fg;gl;l nfhLikfis mwpe;j murH Nfrpair cldbahf jha;ehL jpUk;GkhW fl;lis gpwg;gpj;jhH. md;dhUf;Fg; gjpyha; fpwp];jt rPyk; epiwe;j gpud; vd;gtH epakpf;fg;gl;lhH.

jpUkzk;

1717k; Mz;L rPfd;ghy;f; gf;jpapy; rpwe;j Copa thQ;ir epiwe;j Nkupah rhy;];khd; vd;w mk;khisj; jpUkzk; nra;jhH. jpUkzj;jpw;Fg; gpd; md;dhupy; Copa thQ;ir tsHe;jNjad;wp Fiwe;jpltpy;iy.

RftPdk;

jha;ehl;by; fy;Nyapy; ,Uf;Fk;NghJ jpBnud Neha;tha;g;gl;L kuzj;jpd; jiythapy; tiuapYk; nrd;whH. Mdhy; fHj;jupd; Copak; mtH%yk; ,d;dKk; mjpfkha; eilngw Ntz;bajpUe;jikahy; fHj;jH jk; fuj;ij ePl;b mtiuj; njhl;L Rfkspj;jhH.

 ,e;jpahtpw;Fj; jpUk;Gjy;

rPfd;ghy;f; GJ N[hbaha; ,e;jpahtpw;Fj; jpUk;gpdhH. (1716k; Mz;L Mf];L khjk; juq;fk;ghbapy; te;J NrHe;jhH) kf;fs; jpus; $l;lkha;r; nrd; FJ}fyj;Jld; tuNtw;wdH. NfrpaRf;Fg; gjpyhf epakpf;fg;gl;bUe;j gpud; kfpo;r;rp Muthuk; nra;J tuNtw;whH.

rPfd;ghy;f;fpd; jpUg;gzptpilAk; fpwp];JkPJ ehl;lk; nfhz;l jkpoHfSk;

 vUrNyk; Myak;

 juq;fk;ghbapy; fpwp];jtHfspd; vz;zpf;if tsHe;jjhy; Kd;dH fl;ba vUrNyk; Myak;NghJkhdjhf ,y;iy. vdNt GjpanjhU vUrNyk; Myaj;jpw;F 9.2.1717y; m];jpghukpl;lhH. md;iwa jpdk; mtH> Nghlg;gl;bUf;fpw m];jpghukhfpa ,NaR fpwp];Jitay;yhky;> NtNw m];jpghuj;ijg;Nghl xUtuhYk; $lhJ vd;w 1.nfhup.3:11 tdj;ij Mjhukhff; nfhz;L mUSiuahw;wpdhH. ,t;thyaf; fl;Lkhd Ntiy Kbe;J 11.10.1718y; gpujp\;il nra;ag;gl;lJ. mjw;F Gjpa vUrNyk; Myak; vd;W ngaH R+l;bdhH. ,d;Wk; ,t;thyak; juq;fk;ghb uh[tPjpapy; fk;gPukha;j; Njhw;wkspf;fpwJ.

Kjy; Ntjrh];jpug; ghlrhiy

fpwp];J khHf;fj;jpd; ew;nra;jpia VuhskhNdhUf;Ff; $wp mtHfisf; fpwp];J tz;ilapy; nfhz;L tUtjw;F mNef CopaHfs; Njitg;gl;ldH. CopaHfSf;Fg; gapw;rp Njitg;gl;lJ. vdNt Copak; nra;jpl Kd; tUNthupd; vz;zpf;ifia mjpfg;gLj;jp> mtHfSf;Fg; gapw;rp nfhLf;f Ntjrh];jpug;ghlrhiy xd;W Kjy;Kjy; juq;fk;ghbapy; 23.10.1716y; Vw;gLj;jpdhH. ,jw;F nrkpndwp vd;W ngaH. ,q;F gapw;rp ngw;NwhH cgNjrpahHfshfTk; MrpupaHfshfTk; gzp nra;jplyhapdH.

gs;spf;$lq;fs;

jpUf;fila+H> rPHfhop> rpjk;guk;> flY}H ,lq;fspy; gs;spf;$lq;fs; Vw;gLj;jpdhH. mt;tl;lhuj;J kf;fs; ,jdhy; ngUk; ed;ikaile;jdH.

nrhf;fehjd; FLk;gk;

rPfd;ghy;f; ,e;jpahtpw;F jpUk;gp te;jJk; VO FLk;gj;jpdH Qhd];ehdk; ngw;Wf;nfhs;s tpz;zg;gpj;jdH. ,tHfsJ tpz;zg;gj;ij Vw;Wf;nfhz;L mtHfis Ntj mwptpy; guPl;rpj;J rPfd;ghy;f; ,tHfs; midtUf;Fk; Qhd];ehdk; nfhLj;jhH. ,jpy; flY}iur; NrHe;j nrhf;fehjdpd; FLk;gKk; xd;whFk;.

rptngUkhs; nrl;bahH

rPfd;ghy;f;fpd; Copaj;jpd;%yk; fpwp];Jit Vw;Wf;nfhz;L fpwp];jtuhdhH. rptngUkhs; nrl;bahH. ,tuJ Qhd];ehdg; ngaH me;jpNuah. ,tH rPfd;ghy;f; kPz;Lk; ,e;jpahtpw;F te;jNghJ> mtUf;F Copaj;jpy; ngupJk; cjtpahapUe;jhH.

kiyag;gd;

rPfd;ghy;f;fpd; flw;gpuahzj;jpd;NghJ Gjpa Vw;ghl;ilj; jkpohf;fk; nra;a cjtpahapUe;jtH kiyag;gd;. ,tH cz;ikAs;s njhz;lH. tpRthrj;jpy; epiyj;jpUe;jtH (Kd;dH $wg;gl;Ls;sJ).

uhag;gd;

jiyKb rpq;fhupf;Fk; njhopyhsp. fpwp];Jit Vw;Wf;nfhz;L fpwp];jtuhdhH. jpBnud Neha;tha;g;gl;L kupj;Jg;Nghdhh; (Kd;dH $wg;gl;Ls;sJ).

Kjypag;gd;

rPfd;ghy;f;fpw;F Kjd; Kjy; jkpo; fw;Wf;nfhLj;j KJngUk; jkpowpQH. rPfd;ghy;f;f;if jiuapy; tpuyhy; vOjg; gof;Ftpj;j gpd;dH jkpo;r; Rtbfisg; gbj;jplf; fw;Wf;nfhLj;jhH. ,k;KjpatH ,e;J rkaNk kpfr; rpwe;jnjd vz;zk; nfhz;bUe;jtH. Mdhy;> rPfd;ghy;f;NfhL Vw;gl;lj; njhlHghy; mt;ntz;zk; rpwpJ rpwpjhf kq;fpaJ. rPfd;ghy;f;fpd; gpurq;fq;fisAk; FzrPyq;fisAk; Cd;wpf; ftdpj;J te;j Kjypag;gd;> jd; khHf;fj;ijtpl fpwp];J khHf;fj;jpy; rpwg;G kpf cs;sJ. fpwp];JTf;F xg;ghdtH xUtUkpy;iy vd;gjidf; fz;Lnfhz;lhH. fpwp];J khHf;fNk rj;jpakhHf;fk; vd;gjid njsptha;f; fz;Lnfhz;lhH. vdNt fpwp];Jit Vw;Wf;nfhz;L fpwp];jtuhdhH.

mofg;gd;

muR nkhop ngaHg;ghsuhf ,Ue;j xUtupd; ngaHjhd; mofg;gd;. ,tiu mofg;gd; vd;W gpwH mioj;jdH. rPfd;ghy;f; jkpo; gbj;jpl mofg;gdpd; cjtpAk; fpilj;jJ. ,tH NghHj;Jf;fPrpa nkhop> n[Hkd; nkhop> Nldp\; nkhop> lr;R nkhop Mfpatw;iwf; fw;wpUe;j NguwpQH. ,UtUk; fpwp];Jit Vw;Wf;nfhz;L fpwp];j tuhapdH. gy nkhopfisg; gbj;jpUe;j ,g;NguwpQH jkpoH vd;gij mwpAk;NghJ cs;sk; NgUtif milfpwjy;yth!

rpd;dg;gps;is

MWKfk; gps;isapd; jk;gp fpwp];Jit Vw;Wf;ndfhz;L fpwp];JTf;fhf cioj;jpl jd; nysfPf Ntiyfis cjwp vwpe;jhH. cgNjrpahuha; ey;Y}opak; nra;J ,t;Tyf Xl;lj;ij Kbj;jhH.

MWKfk; gps;is

,tH rPfd;ghy;f;fplk; Qhd];ehdk; ngw;w nrhf;fehjg;gps;isapd; kfd;. ,tH MNuhd; vd;W Qhd];ehdg; ngaH ngw;whH. jplfhj;jpukhd thypgd;. Qhd];ehdk; ngWk;NghJ taJ ,UgJ.

MWKfk; gps;is khHf;f tp\aq;fspy; xU jPtputhjp vdyhk;. Qhd];ehdk; ngWk; Kd;dH ,e;J khHf;fj;jpy; vj;Jiz msT gw;ws;stuhapUe;jhNuh> mjid tplg; gd;klq;F gw;ws;stuha; fpwp];JTf;Fj; njhz;lhw;w MHtKs;stuhdhH.

,tH fpwp];Jit Vw;Wf;nfhz;L nka;f;fpwp];jtuhdJk; ed;elf;ifapYk; mwptpYk; rpwe;J fhzg;gl;lhH. ,tuJ MHtKk;> nray; jpwDk;> gf;jp tho;f;ifAk; rPfd;ghy;f;fpd; kdjpy; ey;ynjhU ,lj;ijg; gpbj;jf;nfhz;ld. vdNt ,tiug; Nghjfuhf epakpf;f tpUk;gpdhH. mjw;fhfg; gapw;rp ngw;wplr; nra;jhH. gpd;dH 1733k; Mz;L brk;gH khjk; 28k; Njjp mtH NghjfhgpN\fk; nra;ag;gl;lhH.

,tiu midtUk; md;Gld; MNuhd; ehl;ilaH vd;W miof;fyhapdH.

MNuhd; vd;w MWKfkK gps;is Kjy; ,e;jpag; NghjfH. jkpoHfspNy xUtHjhd; ,e;jpahtpy; Kjy; NghjfuhdhH vd;gJ jkpoH ,dj;jpw;Nf ngUik jUfpw kfpo;r;rp nfhLf;fpw xU nra;jpay;yth?

,Wjpg; gazk;

Vw;nfdNt Neha; nfhz;l cliyAila rPfd;ghy;f; Xa;tpd;wp cioj;jikahy; Nehapd; nfhLik mjpfupf;fyhapw;W. Mdhy; kde;jsutpy;iy. Neha; nfhz;l clypYk; jplcWjpahd kdk; ,Uf;Fk;. cj;jk cd;djf; fpwp];J ,t;tpjkhNdhiuAk; cgNahfpf;fpwhH vd;gjw;F rPfd;ghy;f; XH mj;jhl;rp. gzpapid ,tH njhlHe;J nra;Jnfhz;NlapUe;jhH.

,tuJ gzp kpf tpupthd gzp vd;W epHthff; FOj;jiytuha; Nfhg;gd;Nffd; efupypUe;j FWfpa Nehf;fKila ntd;l; Fw;wk; rhl;bdhH. rPfd;ghy;f;fpd; Copak; gutyha; eilngw;Wg; gad;jUtijr; rfpj;jpl Kbahj cs;sj;jpduha; ntd;l; ,tHkPJ xd;wd;gpd; xd;whfg; gy Fw;wr;rhl;Lf;fisf; $wplyhdhH.

Fw;wr;rhl;Lfs;

Nldp\; kp\Df;F (fy;Ny kp\d;) tPL thq;fpaJ Fw;wk;.

gs;spf;$lq;fs; Vw;gLj;jpaJ Fw;wk;.

mdhijaH ,y;yk; Muk;gpj;jJ Fw;wk;.

kp\Df;Fg; Giuaplk; thq;fpaJ Fw;wk;.

Myak; mikj;jJ Fw;wk;.

Ntjghlrhiy Vw;gLj;jpaJ Fw;wk;.

fhfpjj; njhopw;rhiy vw;glf; fhuzkhapUe;jJ Fw;wk;.

mr;rfk; Vw;gLj;jpaJ Fw;wk;.

Gj;jfk; ntspapl;lJ Fw;wk;.

jkpoUf;Fj; njhz;L nra;jJ Fw;wk;.

jkpoUf;Ff; fpwp];Jit cgNjrpj;jJ Fw;wk;.

,itnay;yhk; Fw;wk;jhdh ,y;iyah vd ePq;fNs jPHg;gspAq;fs;.

 

 

rPfd;ghy;f; ,f;Fw;wr; rhl;Lf;fisAk; Rke;J nfhz;L kde;jsuhJ gzpGupe;jhH. vdpDk; kD\Pfj;jpy; rw;Wf; ftiynfhz;lhH. Vw;nfdNt mtuplk; jQ;rk; GFe;j Nehapd; njhy;iy mjpfupj;jJ. md;dhupd; epiyik Nkhrkhapw;W. 1718k; Mz;L fpwp];k]; jpdj;ijnahl;b mjpf RftPdkile;jhH. Mdhy; mtiuf; nfhz;L ,d;dKk; rpy fhupaq;fisr; nra;a Ntz;bapUe;jikahy; fHj;jH Rfkspj;jhH. cgNahfpj;jhH. vdNt fpwp];k];> GJtUl Muhjidfspy; cw;rhfkha;g; gpurq;fpj;jhH.

gpd;dH kWgbAk; RftPdk; mjpfupj;jJ. kuzk; rPf;fukha; rk;gtpf;Fk; vd;gij czHe;j rPfd;ghy;f;> FUd;l;yH Iauplk; vy;yhg; nghWg;GfisAk; xg;gilj;jhH.

ruPu ngytPdj;jpd;NghJk; jpdKk; fhiyapYk; khiyapYk; FLk;g n[gk; elj;Jtij epWj;jtpy;iy. Mk;! vd;Wk; Nghy; md;W> ngg;utup khjk; 23k; Njjp fhiyapyYk; (1719) FLk;g n[gk; elj;jpdhH. gpd; xd;gJ kzpf;F %r;Rj; jpzWtij czHe;jhH. kuzk; NeupLtjw;fhd mwpFwp Njhd;wpaJ. rPfd;ghy;f;fpd; %d;W gps;isfSk; kidtpAk; R+o ,Ue;J fz;zPH nghope;J nfhz;bUe;jdH. FUz;l;yUk; kidtpahUk; te;jdH. cUf;fkha; n[gpj;jdH.

me;j Ntisapy; mtH jd; fz;fis %bathNw mNjh> mq;Nf xU ntspr;rk; Njhd;WfpwNj! mnjd;d? mt;ntspr;rk; vd; fz;fSf;F mofhfj; Njhd;Wfpd;wJ vd;W $wpdhH. rw;W Neuk; eprg;jk; eptpaJ. gpd;dH R+o ,Ue;jtHfsplk; vd;id kPl;Lj; jhq;fpa vd;w ghliyg; ghLkhW nrhd;dhH.

mtHfs; ghbdH> gpd; vd;id ehw;fhypapy; cl;fhu itAq;fs; vd;whH. ehw;fhypapy; cl;fhu itj;jdH.

Mk;! cl;fhHe;jthW guk v[khdplk; nrd;W tpl;lhH. mLj;j ehs; mtUila rlyk; Gjpa vUrNyk; Myaj;jpy; mlf;fk; nra;ag;gl;lJ.

rpyehl;fSf;Fg; gpd; FUz;lyH kupj;jhH. ,UtuJ kuzj;jpw;Fk; ntd;l; vd;ghH fhuzkhapUe;jhH vd;W nrhy;yg;gLfpwJ.