டேவிட் லிவிங்ஸ்டன்

mwpag;glhj Mgpupf;fhTf;F toptFj;Jf;nfhLj;jtH

Nltpl; yptpq;];ld;

david livingstone

(1813 - 1873)

md;Gs; mk;kh! ,Njh ,e;jg; gzk; ehd; xU thuj;jpy; rk;ghjpj;jJ vd;W Nltpl; kpf cw;rhfj;NjhL jd; jhapd; kbapy; mtDila rk;gsj;ij vLj;J itj;jhd;. FLk;gj;jpd; tWikia XusT mtDila rk;ghj;jpaj;jhy; Fiwf;f KbfpwJ vd;W mtd; czHr;rp trg;gl;lhd;. ,e;jg; gzj;ij itj;J vd;d nra;ag;Nghfpwha; Nltpl; vd;W mtd; jha; Nfl;f> mk;kh ePq;fs; mDkjpj;jhy; ,yj;jPd; nkhopapd; ,yf;fzg; Gj;jfk; thq;f tpUk;GfpNwd; vd;W epjhdkha; gjpyspj;jhd;. mtDf;F gbf;fNtz;Lk; vd;W mj;jid MHtk; ,Ue;jJ. mdhy; tWik mtDf;F fy;tp fw;Fk; tha;g;ig kWj;Jtpl;lJ.

Muk;g tho;f;if

1813k; Mz;L khHr; khjk; gj;njhd;gjhk; jpfjp Nltpl; yptpq;];ld; ];nfhl;yhe;J Njrj;jpy; gpwe;jhd;. mtDila ngw;NwhH kpfTk; Viofs;. Mdhy; cz;ikf; fpwp];jtHfs;. Foe;ijg; gUtj;jpy; Nltpl; fpwp];jt xOf;fq;fisg; ngw;NwhuplNk fw;Wf;nfhz;lhd;. xd;gJ tajpdpNyNa Ntjhfkj;ij kpff; fUj;NjhL gbf;fyhdhd;. E}w;Wg;gj;njhd;gjhk; rq;fPjk; KOtJk; mg;NghJ mtdhy; kdg;ghlkhfr; nrhy;yKbAk;. kpFe;j tWikapd; fhuzkhf mtd; gs;spf;Fr; nrd;W fy;tp fw;fKbatpy;iy. gj;jhk; tajpy; xU gQ;rhiyapy; Ntiyf;F mkHe;jhd;. mq;F fhiy Mwkzp Kjy; ,uT vl;L kzptiu Ntiynra;aNtz;Lk;. Ntiy nra;Ak;NghJ ,yj;jPd; nkhop Gj;jfj;ijj; jdf;fUfpy; jpwe;Jitj;Jf;nfhz;L gbj;Jf; nfhz;Nl Ntiynra;thd;. tPl;bw;F te;J kpfTk; fisg;gha; ,Ue;jNghjpYk; eL ,uTtiu gbj;Jf;nfhz;bUg;ghd;.

fbd ciog;gpd; gadhf ,yj;jPd; nkhopapy; ed;whfj; NjHr;rp ngw;whd;. mjd;gpd; mwptpaiy fw;f Muk;gpj;jhd;. Miyapy; jpwikAld; gzpahw;wpajhy; gjtp caHTk;> mjpf CjpaKk; mtDf;F fpilj;jd gjtp caHT> Cjpa caHT ,t;tpuz;Lk; mtDf;Ff; fy;tp fw;fj; JizGupe;jd. Nfhilfhyq;fspy; Ntiynra;ATk; FspH fhyq;fspy; fy;tp fw;fTk; trjp fpilj;jJ. fpsh];Nfh gy;fiyf;fofj;jpy; fpNuf;fnkhopiaAk;> kUj;JtKk; fw;W te;jhd;. Nfhilfhyj;jpy; Ntiynra;J nfhz;Nl ,iwapy; E}y;fisf; fw;Wte;jhd;. fy;tpapy; Nkk;ghL mila mtDf;F ahUila cjtpAk; fpilj;jjpy;iy. mj;jid fbd ciog;Gk;> tho;f;ifj; Jd;gq;fSk; mtDf;Fg; gpw;fhyj;jpy; gzpj;jsj;jpy; ghLfisr; rfpf;f gapw;rpahf mike;jJ.

yptpq;];ld; tpisahl Neuk; ,Ue;jjpy;iy. Mdhy; xt;nthU ehSk; Mw;Nwhukhfr; nry;Yk; ghijapy; jd; tPl;bw;F ele;J nry;tij ,d;gkhf urpj;J kfpOthd;. kPd; gpbg;gjpYk; mtDf;F tpUg;gKz;L. ,aw;if fhl;rpfisf; $He;J ftdpg;ghd;. gwitfs;> gytif g+f;fs;> Fd;Wfs; Mfpaitfisf; ftdpj;J mwpitg; ngUf;fpf; nfhs;thd;. gpuahzj;jpd;NghJ Gj;jfq;fisg; gbj;Jr; nry;tjpy; tpUg;gKilatd;. vy;yhtw;wpw;Fk; Ntjhfkj;ij thrpj;J jpahdpg;gjpy; mjpfg; gw;Wilatd;. ,t;tpjk; Ntjhfkj;ij vy;yhtw;iwAk; tpl Nerpj;J> mtDila gpw;fhy tho;f;ifapy; ngupJk; cjtpw;W. NtjhfkNk mtDila filrp ehl;fspy; mtDf;F ,izaw;w Jizaha; ,Ue;jJ.

Mgpupf;fh ehl;bw;F miog;G

yptpq;];ld; mtUila ,UgjhtJ tajpy; fpwp];Jitj; jd; nrhe;j ,ul;rfuhf Vw;Wf;nfhz;L> may;ehLfspy; kprdwpahfr; nry;yj; jPHkhdpj;jhH. xU nIHkhdpa kprdwp kUj;Jtk; njupe;j NjtCopaH Njit vd;W yptpq;];lDf;Ff; fbjk; vOjpdhH. kUj;Jtg; gzpiar; rPd ehl;by; nra;a mioj;jpUe;jhH. mjdhy; yptpq;];ld; jd; kUj;Jtg;gbg;ig Kbj;jJk; rPd ehl;bw;Fr kprdwpahfr; nry;y KbntLj;jhH. flTNsh mtUf;fhf NtW jpl;lq;fis itj;jpUe;jhH. ehk; ek;Kila nray; jpl;lq;fis flTs; fuj;jpy; xg;gilf;Fk;NghJ ek; tpUg;gk; epiwNtwhJ NghapDk; fHj;jupd; rpj;jk; jtwhJ epiwNtWk;. rPd Njrj;jpy; cs;ehl;L Aj;jk; eilngw;wikahy; yptpq;];ld; rPdhtpw;Fg; NghtJ jilahapw;W.

fHj;jUila top elj;JjYf;fhff; fhj;jpUf;Fk; NghJ> uhgHl; nkhgl; vd;Dk; Mg;gpupf;f kprdwp xUtH ,yz;ld; efupy; Mgpupf;f ehl;bd; Njitfisf; Fwpj;Jg; NgrpdhH. mtH nrhd;djhtJ: Mgpupf;f ehl;by; Mapuf;fzf;fhd fpuhkq;fspy; Gif kz;lyj;ij ehd; ghHj;Njd;. mtHfs; flTsw;wtHfs;. fpwp];Jit mwpahjtHfs;. cyfpy; ek;gpf;ifaw;wtHfs;. ,e;jg; Ngr;R yptpq;];ld; cs;sj;jpy; fpupia nra;J. mjdhy; Mgpupf;fh ehl;bw;Fg; Nghfj; jPHkhdpj;jhH. fg;gy; gpuahzj;jpd;NghJ el;rj;jpuq;fisf; fzpj;J topfz;Lgpbg;gJ vg;gb vd;w fiyif; fw;Wf;nfhz;lhH. njd;Mgpupf;f ehl;bd; Nfg; lTd; efH te;J ,wq;fpaJk; thd rh];jpuk; fw;Wf;nfhz;lhH. ,Uz;l fhLfspy; mtH gpw;fhyj;jpy; gpuahzk; nra;a Neupl;lNghJ> top fz;L gpbf;f thdrh];jpu gapw;rp mtUf;F kfpTk; gpuNahIdkhf ,Ue;jJ.

,Uz;l fz;lj;jpy; Nltpl; yptpq;];ld;

Nfg; lTd; efupy; ,Ue;J vUJfs; ,Of;Fk; $z;L tz;bapy; vOE}W iky;fs; gpuahzk; nra;J FUkhd; vd;w ,lj;ijaile;jhH. mq;Fjhd; uhgHl; nkhgl; gzpahw;wpf;nfhz;bUe;jhH. mtUld; jq;fpapUf;Fk;NghJ> flTs; ngupanjhU jpUg;gzpia Mgpupf;f ehl;by; mtH nra;a tpUk;Gtjhff; fz;Lnfhz;lhH. Mgpupf;f ehl;bd; kj;jpa gpuNjrj;jpy; gpuNtrpf;fTk;> mij RtpNrrj;jpw;Fj; jpwe;JtplTk; jPHkhdpj;jhH. mJtiu xUtUk; clnry;yhj gFjpia fpwp];Jtpd; ew;nra;jpf;nfd;W nrd;W mila Mty; nfhz;lhH. ,Jtiu ve;j kdpjDk; nra;jpuhj ngUk;gzpia mtH nra;Ntz;Lnkd;W flts; mtiu mioj;jpUf;fpwhH vd;W g+uzkha; ek;gpdhH. vz;zw;w Mgpupf;f ,dkf;fs; kj;jpagFjpapy; trpf;fpwhHfs;. mtHfSf;F fpwp];Jtpd; ew;nra;jp nrhy;yg;gltpy;iy. RtpNrrj;jpw;fhf nry;yKbahj cl;gFjpfis jhNk nrd;wila jPHkhdpj;jhH.

rpq;fj;ij Ntl;ilahLjy;

Nkhgl;rh vd;w kpf mofhd gs;sj;jhf;Fg; gpuNjrj;jpy; %d;W Mz;Lfs; jq;fpg; gzpGupa njupe;J nfhz;lhH. mq;fpUf;Fk;NghJ Nkup nkhgl; vd;gtiuj; jpUzk; nra;Jnfhz;lhH. mts; uhgHl; nkhgl; mtHfspd; Fkhuj;jpahths;. Nkhgl;rh gs;sj;jhf;fpy; rpq;fq;fspd; njhy;iy mjpfkha; ,Ue;jJ. mit kdpjHfisAk; ML> khlfisAk; nfhd;W ,Oj;Jr; nrd;WtpLk;. mq;F tho;e;j kf;fs; yptpq;];ldpd; cjtpia ehbdH. xU rpq;fj;ijf; nfhd;Wtpl;lhy; kw;wait mq;fpUe;J XbtpLk; vd;W yptpq;];ld; mwpe;jpUe;jhH. rpy Mgpupf;f kf;fisj; jd;Dld; mioj;Jf;nfhz;L rpq;fNtl;ilf;Fr; nrd;whH. xU rpq;fj;ijr; RlNt mJ mtHNky; gha;e;J mtH Njhs;gl;iliaf; fpopj;Jtpl;lJ. ,jw;Fs;shf mtUld; nrd;wpUe;j kw;wtHfs; rpq;fj;ijr; Rl;L tPo;j;jpdH. ,e;jf; fhak; kpfTk; Mgj;jhdJk; Rfkhf mjpfehl;fis vLj;Jf;nfhz;ljhfTk; ,Ue;jJ. mtUila fuk; ,jdhy; gytPdg;gl;L CdKw;wJ. Njhs;gl;ilj; jOk;G mtH rhFk;tiu epiyj;jpUe;jJ. ,e;jj; jOk;ig itj;Jj;jhd; mtH kupj;jgpd; mtuJ cliyf; fz;Lgpbf;fKbe;jJ. me;j ,lj;jpy; mNef Mgpupf;fHfs; fpwp];Jit Vw;Wf;nfhz;lhHfs;. yptpq;];lDk; me;j ,lj;jpNyNa mjpf trjpaha; tho;e;jpUf;fyhk;.

tlgFjpia Nehf;fpr; nry;Yjy;

yptpq;];ld; jq;fp gzpGupe;j ,lj;jpy; jz;zPHg; gw;whf;Fiwahy; gQ;rk; Vw;gl;lJ. kw;w kf;fisg; Nghy mtUk; ntl;Lf;fpsp> rpytif jtisfs; Mfpatw;iwg; Grpj;J thoNtz;bapUe;jJ. tlgFjpia Nehf;fpr; nry;y xU Fwpg;gpl;l ,lj;ijj; Njbf;nfhz;bUe;jhH. tlgFjpf;Fr; nry;yNtz;Lkhdhy; kpfg; ngupa thde;jpuj;ijf; flf;fNtz;Lnkd;W Nfs;tpg;gl;lhH. mJtiu xUtUk; mg;ngupa tdhe;juj;ijf; fle;JNghdjpy;iynad;W Nfs;tpg;gl;lhH. Ke;E}W iky;fs; gpuahzk; nra;J mt;tdhe;jpuj;ijf; flf;f KbntLj;jhH. jz;zPH ,y;yhikahy; mNefKiw mtH mtjpf;Fs;shdhH. xUrkak; mq;F tho;e;J te;j kdpjd; xUtd; jPf;Nfhop Kl;ilapy; cs;s jz;zPiu mtUf;Ff; nfhLj;Jf; fhg;ghw;wpdhd;. jPf;Nfhop jd; Kl;ilfis kzypy; Gijj;J itf;Fk;. mNef ehs; gpuahzj;jpw;Fg; gpd; efhkp Vupia te;jile;jhH. ,JNt mtUila Kjy; Gtpapay; fz;Lgpbg;G. me;j Vupiaf; fz;Lgpbj;j Kjy; INuhg;gpaUk; mtNu.

mtH kWgbAk; gpuahzg;gl;L mNef Mgj;Jfisf; fle;J nry;yNtz;bapUe;jJ. %lek;gpf;ifapy; %o;fpf; fple;j Mgpupf;f ,dkf;fSk;> NghaH vdg;gl;l lr;Rf;fhuHfSk; njd; Mgpupf;fhtpy; FbNawpdtHfs;. ,tHfs; mtUf;F mjpf Mgj;ij tpistpj;jdH. NghaHfs; Mgpupf;fHfis mbikfshfg; gpbj;J ntspehLfSf;F Vw;Wkjp nra;J te;jhHfs;. ,ij yptpq;];ld; fz;bj;jhH. xU rkak; mtUila cilfs;> clikfs;> Gj;jfq;fs;> kUe;Jfs; Mfpatw;iw vLj;Jf;nfhz;L Xbtpl;ldH. MdhYk; mtH mtw;iwnay;yhk; nghUl;gLj;jhJ ,d;dy;fisf; fle;J nrd;W Ihk;grp ejpiaf; fz;Lgpbj;jhH. ,J Mgpupf;fhtpy; kj;jpa ghfj;jpy; mike;Js;s ejpahFk;. ,t;tplj;jpYk; mtuhy; jq;fp gzpGupa ,aytpy;iy. ,g;gFjpapy; tprf;fha;r;ry; gutpapUe;jNj mjw;Ff; fhuzk;.

jdpNa gpuahzg;gLjy;

Mgpupf;f ehl;bd; kj;jpa cl;gFjpf;Fs; NkYk; nry;y tpUk;gpdhH. mjdhy; jd; kidtp gps;isfis ,q;fpyhe;J ehl;bw;Fj; jpUg;gpaDg;gptpl;lhH. mtHfshy; mj;jidf; fbdkhd gpuahzj;ij Nkw;nfhs;sKbahJ. fpwp];Jtf;Fg; gzpahw;Wtjpy; jhfKw;wtuha; Mgpupf;f fhLfspy; Eioe;J cl;gFjp kf;fisr; re;jpf;fr; nrd;whH. Mgpupf;f ehl;bd; eLg;gFjpia fpof;F Nkw;fhff; fle;J nry;yj; jPHkhdpj;jhH. ,e;j ePz;l gpuahzk; Mgpupf;fhtpd; g+Nfhs mikg;gpy; Gjpa fz;L gpbg;ghFk;. 1855-1856k; Mz;Lfspy; ,e;jf; fz;L gpbg;G gpuahzj;ij Nkw;nfhz;lhH. Mgpupf;f ,d kf;fs; gyiu ,e;jg; gpuahzj;jpy; mtH re;jpj;jhH. mtHfs; mJtiu nts;is kdpjidf; fz;ljpy;iy. mtUila md;Gk;> mDjhgKk;> kUe;Jr;NritAk; gy Mgpupf;f ,d kf;fis ez;gHfshf;fpw;W. mtHfs; kj;jpapy; mtH jq;fpf; fpwp];Jitg; gpurq;fpj;J kUj;Jtr; NritAk; Gupe;jhH. rpy ,d kf;fs; mtiu tpNuhjpj;jdH. mjdhy; mtH mNefKiw capHjg;gpg; gpiof;f Ntz;bajhapw;W.

mbik tpahghuk;

,e;jg; gpuahzj;jpd;NghJjhd; tpypq;];ld; Mgpupf;fHfis mbikfshf;fp tpw;W njhopy; elj;Jk; gaq;fu epiyikiaf; fz;L gae;jhH. Mg;gpupf;fHfisg; gpbf;f mtHfs; thOk; fpuhkj;ijj; jpBnud;W jhf;fp> kf;fisg; gpbj;J mlf;FthHfs;. Mz;fs;> ngz;fs;> gps;isfs; midtiuAk; mbikfshfg; gpbj;JtpLthHfs;. fpuhkj;ijj; jPf;fpiuahf;fp ePz;l fdj;j kuj;Jz;lfis mtHfSila Njhspd;Nky; itj;J> fOj;ij kuj;NjhL ,izj;J tpLthHfs;. ,t;tpjkhf fhLfspd; topNa elj;jg;gl;L flw;fiu efuq;fspy; mbikfshf tpw;Wg;Nghlg;gLthHfs;. mtHfs; jg;gpg; Nghfhjgb ePz;l ,Uk;Gr; rq;fpypfNshL mj;jid kf;fSk; ,izf;fg;gl;bUg;gH. fhl;bDs; ele;JNghifapy; Neha;tha;g;gLfpwtHfisAk;> fhag;gLfpwtHfisAk; kupf;Fk;gb mq;NfNa tpl;Lr; nry;tH. kdpj vYk;Gf;$Lfs; vq;Fk; rpjwpf;fplf;Fk;. mofpa nropg;ghd Mgpupf;f fpuhkq;fs; jiukl;lkhf;fg;gl;L jPf;fpiuahfp mthe;jukhff; fhzg;gLk;. ,f; Nfhuf;fhl;rpfSk; nfhba mbik tpahghuKk; yptpq;];ld; ,jaj;ij nefpoitj;jJ. ,e;epiyia Mgpupf;fhtpd; MwhjGz; vd tHzpj;Js;shH. ,ij vg;gbahtJ NthuhL mopf;Fk;tiu NghuhLNtd; vd;W jPHkhdpj;jhH. mbik tpahghuf;nfhLikia epWj;jTk; Mgpupf;fhtpd; cl;gFjp guNjrq;fl;F jd;idg; gpd;gw;wptUk; kprdwpfs; nry;yTk; khHf;fq;fis fz;Lgpbf;fNtz;Lnkd cWjpnfhz;lhH. ,Uz;l fz;lj;jpd; mlHe;j fhLfspd; eLNt ghij fz;Lgpbf;fNtz;batHjhNd vd;gJ vd;gJ mtUf;F ed;whfj; njupAk;. gyKiw mtiu mbikfshfg; gpbj;J tpw;gid nra;Ak; tpahghup vd fUjpdH. Mgpupf;f kf;fs; mtiug; gpbj;J Jd;GWj;jTk;> nfhy;yTk; Kaw;rpj;jdH. fHj;jupd; fuk; mw;Gjkha;f; fhg;ghw;wpaJ.

cgj;jputq;fs;

Mgpupf;f ,dj;jiytd; xUtd; xU rkak; yptpq;];ldplk; cq;fSila Njrk; ,e; ew;nra;jpia vq;fSf;F Vd; Kd;dNkNa mwptpf;ftpy;iy? Vd; Kd;NdhHfs; midtUk; rj;jpaj;ij mwpahkNy kupj;Jg;NghdhHfs;. ePH te;J vdf;Fr; nrhd;d ew;nra;jp xd;iwAk; mtHfs; mwpahj epiyapy; kupj;Jtpl;ldNu. ,J vg;gb vd;W Nfl;lhd;. ,tNd Kjy; Kjyhff; fpwp];Jit Vw;Wf;nfhz;ltd;. ,f;Nfs;tp yptpq;];ld; kdjpy; Mokha;g; gjpe;jJ. md;wpypUe;J E}w;Wf;fzf;fhd Mgpupf;f ,d kf;fisj; Njbr; nrd;whH. Eioa Kbahj fhl;Lg; gFjpfspYk; Jupjkhf Kd;Ndwpr; nrd;whH. ,e;jg; gzp Rygkhdjy;y. mtUila cilfs; fpope;J fe;jyhapd. ghjq;fspy; nfhg;Gsq;fSk; ruPuj;jpy; Gz;fSk; fhaq;fSk; Vw;gl;ld. rpyrkak; Mgpupf;fHfs; mtUf;F Mfhuk; tpw;f kWj;JtpLtH. me;jr; rkaq;fspy; gl;bdp fplg;ghH. fpoq;Ffspd; tpijfisj; jpd;W capHtho;e;jhH. jiuapy; gLj;Jwq;FthH. fpwp];Jtpdpkpj;jk; ruPu ghLfSf;Fs;shdhH. Kg;gj;njhUKiw Mgpupf;f tprf;fha;r;ryhy; ghjpf;fg;gl;l mtH cly; vYk;Gk; NjhYkhff; fhl;rpaspj;jJ. fha;r;rypd; fLikahy; kdf;Fog;gKk; kwjpAk; Vw;gLk;. jd;Dld; tUk; egHfspd; ngaiu kwe;JtpLthH. fpoik ehl;fisg; gw;wpa epidT mw;Wg;NghFk;. ,it xd;Wk; mtiur; nraypof;fr; nra;a Kbatpy;iy. Ntjhfkj;ij mbf;fb thrpj;J cw;rhfj;ijAk; MWjiyAk; milthH. ehl;Fwpg;gpy; mtH fpwp];Jtpy; khj;jpuk; ehd; Mwjy; mile;Njd;. vq;Fk; nry;y Maj;jkhAs;Nsd;. Mdhy; mJ Kd;Ndw;wg; ghijahfNt ,Uf;fNtz;Lk; vd;W vOjpdhH. mtH nfhLj;j miw$ty; vd;dntd;why; mbik tpahghupfs; Mgpupf;fhitg; gpbf;f me;ehl;bw;Fs; gpuNtrpf;fKbAnkd;why; fpwp];Jtpd; md;gpdhy; mDg;gg;gl;l kprdwpfs; fpwp];JTf;nfd;W Mgpupf;fiug; gpbf;f me;ehl;il CLUtpr; nry;yhky; ,Ug;ghHfNsh vd;gNj.

yptpq;];ld; caHj;jg;gLjy;

Mgpupf;fhf; fz;lj;jpd; ejpfs;> Vupfs; ,itfspd; fz;Lgpbg;G yptpq;];lidg; Gfo; ngwr; nra;jJ. tpf;Nlhupah ePHtPo;r;rpiaf; fz;L gpbj;jJ ,jpy; Kf;fpakhdJ. ,e;j ePHtPo;r;rpia XirapLk; Nkfk; vd;W tHzpj;Js;sdH Mgpupf;fH. mjd; mUfpy; Mgpupf;fHfs; nry;yNt gae;jdH. mtH ,q;fpyhe;Jf;Fj; jpUk;gpaJk; ngupa mstpy; tuNtw;fg;gl;L ghuhl;lg; ngw;whH. gjpdhW Mz;Lfs; Mgpupf;f fhLfspy; gzp nra;J> xd;gjhapuk; iky;fs; gpuahzj;jpy; <Lgl;ltH. eil gazkhfTk;> glfpYk; ePz;l J}uq;fisf; fle;jtH. Mgpupf;fhtpd; G+Nfhsg; gpuNjrq;fis ntsp cyfpw;F Kjy; Kiwahf mwptpj;jtH ,tH. ,j;jid Muha;r;rpfSf;fhf mtUf;Fj; jq;fg;gjf;fq;fSk;> nfsutg;gl;lq;fSk; toq;fg;gl;ld. jpus; jpushf kf;fs; $l;lk; mtiug; ghHf;fTk;> mtH nrhy;tijf; Nfl;fTk; $bdH. nra;jpj;jhs;fs; mtiug; gw;wpAk; Mgpupf;f ehl;bd; Gjpa fz;Lgpbg;Gfisg; gw;wpAk; vOjpaJ. mtUk; gpuahzf;fl;Liu kw;Wk; Mgpupf;f ehl;by; Gjpa khHf;fq;fisg; gw;wp vOjp Gj;jfkhf ntspapl;lhH.

kWKiw Mgpupf;f ehL nry;Yjy;

murhq;fj;jpd; gpujpepjpahf ,q;fpyhe;J muR mtiu epakpj;jJ. muR mjpfhupahf Mgpupf;f ehL jpUk;gpdhH. Gjpa ,lq;fis MuhaTk; kprdwp Copak; njhlHe;J nra;aTk; murhq;fk; mtUf;F mDkjpaspj;jJ. gy cjtpahsHfs; jd;Dld; ,Ue;jhHfs; vd;whYk; fha;r;rypdhy; mtjpg;gl;L xt;nthUtuhf mtiutpl;Lg; gpupe;J NghapdH. %d;W khjq;fSf;Fg; gpd;dH mtuJ kidtp Gjpagzpj;jsj;jpy; mtUld; Ngha;r; NrHe;jhs;. mtSk; tprf;fha;r;ryhy; ghjpf;fg;gl;L ,we;JNghdhs;. mtis xU kuj;jpd;fPo; Gijj;jdH. mtuJ gpuahz Muk;g ehl;fspNyNa xU ngz; Foe;ij kupj;Jg; Nghdjhy; Mgpupf;f kz;zpy; Gijj;jpUe;jhH. kidtpapd; ,og;G mtUf;F ngupa ,og;ghf ,Ue;jJ. ,e;j kpfg; ngupa ,og;G vd; ,jaj;ijg; Gspe;J tpl;lJ vd;W vOjpdhH. vg;NghJk; mtUila Fwpf;Nfhs; ahnjdpy; cyff; ftiyfs; ,og;Gfs; vJTk; vd; Kd;dhy; cs;s gzpia ek;gpf;ifaw;w epiyapy; tpl;Ltpl vd;id mDkjpf;fkhl;Nld;. vd; Njtdhfpa fpwp];Jtpy; ngydile;J GJ cw;rhfj;NjhL Kd;Ndwpr; nry;Ntd; vd;Wk; vOjpdhH.

Mgpupf;f ehl;by; mtUila capUf;F vg;NghJk; Mgj;Jf;fs; Neupl;l tz;zkhfNt ,Ue;jd. xUKiw fhz;lhkpUfk; Ntfkha; mtiu vjpHj;J ,bj;Jj; js;s Xb te;jJ. mtH mUfpy; te;jJk; rLjpaha; epd;Wtpl;lJ. mtH ek;gpapUe;j Njtd; mtiug; ghJfhj;jhH. ,d;ndhUKiw XH Mgpupf;f vjpup gj;J mb J}uj;jpypUe;J xU <l;bia mtHNky; vwpe;jhd;. mtH fOj;jpd; Xukha; ghae;J nrd;w <l;b kuj;jpy; Fj;jp epd;wJ. vt;tif Mgj;J Neuq;fspYk; fHj;jH mtNuhbUe;jhH. mtH Muk;gpj;j gzp KbAk; tiu NjtDila fuk; mtiu Mr;rupakha; ghjfhj;jJ vd;W Koq;fpdhH. mLj;J te;j ngupa ,og;G ahnjdpy;> gpupl;b]; murhq;fk; mtUila rk;gsj;ij epWj;jptpl;lJ. mbik tpahghuj;jpy; <Lgl;ltHfs; mtUf;F tpNuhjkha;r; nray;g;gl;L murpd; cjtpia epWj;jptpl;ldH. mjdhy; mtH ,q;fpyhe;J jpUk;gNtz;ba epiy Vw;gl;lJ fHj;jH ntF tpiutpy; NtW topapy; ez;gHfs; %ykha; gz cjtp fpilf;fr; nra;jhH. kWKiwAk; Mgpupf;f ehL jpUk;gpa yptpq;];ld; gpd; xUNghJk; ,q;fpyhe;J ehl;bw;F nry;yNtapy;iy.

mtUila filrp fz;Lgpbg;Gfs;

yptpq;];ld; jdJ mWgjhtJ tajpy; Mgpupf;f ehl;bd; kj;jpag;gFjpapy; jk;Kila filrp Muha;r;rpapy; ,wq;fpdhH. taJ nrd;w epiyapy; gy tUl ghLfs; epiwe;j gpuahzq;fs;> nrhe;j Ntiyf;fhuHfspd; cz;ikaw;w jd;ik> mgpupf;f ,d kf;fspd; tpNuhj kdg;ghd;ik> ,itfnsy;yhk; mtUila ,e;jf; filrp gpuahzj;jpy; ntspg;gilahff; fhzg;gl;lJ. mtUf;F tUk; fbjq;fs;> nghUs;fs; ahTk; fsthlg;gl;ld. XH mNugpa tzpfdplk; jk;Kila rpy clikfisf; nfhLj;Jitj;jpUe;jhH. mNefehl;fs; ,tiug; gw;wp mtd; xd;Wk; Nfs;tpg;glhjjhy; mtH clikfisnay;yhk; tpw;Wtpl;lhd;. Fiwe;j Mfhuk; fe;jyhd cil> cilikfnsy;yhk; ,oe;j epiyapy;> tWik kpf;f kdpjdha;> md;gw;w Mgpupf;f kf;fs; kj;jpapy; tho;e;J te;jhH. mtH mDg;Gk; vy;yhf; fbjq;fSk; fpopj;njwpag;gl;ld. ,tiu tpNuhjpj;j mbik tpahghupfs; fbjg;Nghf;Ftuj;ij epWj;jptpl;ldH. kUe;Jfs; mlq;fpa mtuJ ngl;bAk; vLj;Jr; nry;yg;gl;Ltpl;lJ. fha;r;rypdhy; mtH mtjpg;gLk;NghJ kUe;Jfs; ,y;yhjjhy; jk;ikf; Fzg;gLj;jpf;nfhs;sKbatpy;iy. ntsp cyFld; mtUf;fpUe;j vy;yh njhlHGfSk; mWgl;Lg;Nghapd. ntspehLfspy; mtiuj; njupe;j ez;gHfs; mtH kupj;Jtpl;lhnud;Nw vz;zpapUe;jdH. fHj;jH mtiuf; iftpltpy;iy. jpf;fw;wtuha; tpl;LtplTk; ,y;iy.

epA+NahHf; nfuhy;l; vd;w mnkupf;f nra;jpj;jhspd; MrpupaH nfd;wp ];lhd;yp vd;gtiu yptpq;];lidj; Njb fz;L gpbf;Fk;gbahf Mgpupf;f ehl;bw;F mdg;gpdH. gy khjq;fs; ];lhd;yp gpuahzk; nra;J yptpq;];lid cI;Ip vd;w ,lj;jpy; nrd;W re;jpj;jhH. czTg; nghUl;fs; kUe;Jfs; Mfpatw;iw ];lhd;yp jd;Dld; vLj;J te;jpUe;jhH. yptpq;];ld; gykilaTk; Rfk; ngw;W Gj;JapH ngwTk; ];lhd;yp re;jpg;G cjtpw;W. njhlHe;J rpy khjq;fs; ];lhd;yp mtNuhL jq;fpapUe;jhH. me;ehl;fspy; yptpq;];ldpd; fpwp];Jitg; Nghd;w jpahf tho;f;if ];lhd;ypf;F kpfg; ngupa rthyhf mike;jJ. eh];jPfdhd ];lhd;yp yptpq;];lNdhL jq;fpapUe;jjhy; rpwe;j tpRthrpahf khwpdhH. ];lhd;yp tpypq;];lid jd;NdhL mnkupf; Njrj;jpw;F tUk;gb tw;GWj;jpdhH. yptpq;];lidj; jdJ vQ;rpa tho;f;ifia trjpahf thoTk; NgUk; GfOk; ngwTk; mnkupf;f ehl;bw;F tUk;gb mioj;jhH. yptpq;];ld; mtNuhL nry;y kWj;Jtpl;lhH. jd;dplk; xg;gilf;fg;gl;l Njtg;gzp Kw;Wg;ngwhky; jd;dhy; vq;Fk; tuKbahJ vd;W $wptpl;lhH.

yptpq;];ldpd; ,Wjp fhyk;

Xuhz;L fhyk; NkYk; jkJ gazj;jpy; <Lgl;bUe;j yptpq;];ld; ruPu ngytPdj;jhy; mf;fb NrhHTw;whH. mtUld; ,Ue;j rpy cz;ikAs;s Mgpupf;f ez;gHfs; %q;fpy; fk;Gfshy; fl;lg;gl;l njhl;bypy; itj;J mtiuj; J}f;fpr; nrd;wdH. ngUk; kio> FspH Mfpatw;why; mtUila RftPdk; NkYk; mjpfupj;jJ. ehl;Fwpg;gpy; mtuhy; vOjKbatpy;iy. Mgpupf;f ,isQHfs; mtiu md;NghL ftdpj;J te;jdH. xU rpW Fbirapy; itj;J mtiug; guhkupj;jdH. mtUf;fpUe;j rf;jpAk; ngyDk; ehl;fs; nry;yr; nry;y Fiwe;Jtpl;ld. Nk khjj;jpy; xU ehs; fhiy (1873k; Mz;L) mtUila Fbirf;Fs; mtuJ ez;gHfs; gpuNtrpj;jNghJ mtH gLf;ifaUNf Koq;fhypy; epd;wtz;zk; ,Ue;jhH. fuq;fshy; jhf;fg;gl;l mtuJ Kfk; jiyaiz Nky; rha;e;jpUe;jJ. nIgepiyapy; mtuJ capH gpupe;jpUe;jJ. Mgpupf;f ehl;bd; fpwp];Jit mwpahj fzf;fw;w Mj;Jkhf;fSf;fhf nIgpj;Jf;nfhz;Nl guNyhfk; nrd;wile;jhH vd;gjpy; rpWJk; Iakpy;iy. kupf;Fk; jUthapYk; Mgpupf;fHfs; fpwp];Jit Vw;Wf;nfhs;sNtz;Lk; vd;W kd;whbagbNa capHJwe;jhH.

cz;ikAs;s mtuJ Mgpupf;f ez;gHfs; mtUila ,Ujaj;ij vLj;J Mgpupf;f ehl;by; kj;jpag; gFjpapy; Gijj;jdH. mtuJ ruPuj;ijf; nflhj tz;zk; gjk; nra;J njhshapuk; iky;fs; flw;fiug; gFjpf;F Rke;J nrd;wdH. mtuJ cly; ,q;fpyhe;J vLj;Jr;nry;yg;gl;lJ. rpq;fj;jhy; gPWz;l mtuJ Njhs;gl;il jOk;ig itj;Jjhd; mtuJ cly; milahsk; fz;Lnfhs;sg;gl;lJ. ,q;fpyhe;jpd; caHe;j kdpjHfSk;> Gfo;ngw;wtHfSk; mlf;fk; nra;ag;gl;bUe;j nt];l; kpdp];lH mNg vd;Dk; ,lj;jpy; NjrkupahijAld; ey;mlf;fk; nra;ag;gl;lhH. Mapuf;fzf;fpy; kf;fs; nts;sk; Guz;L te;J mtUf;Ff; filrp kupahijiar; nrYj;jpdH. mf;$l;lj;jpy; taJ nrd;w xU kdpjd; gupjhgkhd cilfNshL kdk; cile;J mOJnfhz;bUe;jhd;. mtH Vd; ,g;gb mOfpwhH vd;W Nfl;f Nltpl; yptpq;];lDld; ehDk; xNu fpuhkj;jpy; gpwe;J tsHe;jtHfs;. Xa;T ehs; ghlrhiyapy; xd;whfNt Ntiynra;Njhk;. mtNu flTspd; topiaj; njupe;Jnfhz;L cyfpy; xg;gw;w gzpiar; nra;J Kbj;jhH. ehNdh vd; nrhe;j topiaj; njupe;Jnfhz;L tpUk;gg;glhjtdhf mtkupahijf;Fupatdhf tho;fpNwd;. Njrk; KOtJk; mtiu ,d;W Gfo;e;J kupahij nrYj;JfpwJ. vd;id xUtUk; mwpakhl;lhHfs;. vjpHfhyKk; vdf;F xd;Wkpy;iy. FbfhuDila gpNujf; FopNa vdf;fhff; fhj;jpUf;fpwJ vd;W $wp mOjhH.

fHj;jUila thHj;ij ,JNt. vd;idf; fdk; gz;ZfpwtHfis ehd; fdk; gz;ZNtd;. vd;id mrl;il gz;ZfpwtHfs; fd<dg;gLthHfs; (1.rhK.2:30). yptpq;];ld; fpwp];Jitj; jd; tho;ehspy; fdg;gLj;jp> caHj;jp Copaj;jpd; %yk; mtiu kfpikg;gLj;jpdhH. ,d;iwf;F Mgpupf;fh fz;lj;jpy; E}w;Wf;fzf;fhd kprdwpfs; gzpahw;wpf;nfhz;bUf;fpwhHfs;. vz;zw;w Njthyaq;fspy; Mgpupf;fHfs; fpwp];Jit tzq;fp Muhjpf;fpwhHfs;. ,Uz;l fz;lj;jpd; eLghfkhfpa fhLfs; mlHe;j gpuNjrj;jpy; RtpNrrkhfpa xsp gpufhrpj;Jf;nfhz;bUf;fpwJ. Mgpupf;fHfis mbikfshfg; gpbj;J tpw;Wte;j mbik tpahghuk; mbNahL epwj;jg;gl;Ltpl;lJ. vy;yhtw;wpw;Fk; fhuzk; yptpq;];ld; fpwp];Jtpd; miog;ig Vw;W mtUila rpj;jj;ijr; nra;a fPo;g;gbe;jNj MFk;. fHj;juhy; fl;lg;gl;LtUk; Njt khspifapy; IPtDs;s tpiyNawg; ngw;w fy;yhf gpufhrpf;fpwhH yptpq;];ld; (Livingstone) capUs;s fy; vd;gJ mtuJ ngaH.

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